Growth and development are part of an organism's life history strategy, and so the observation that Neandertals (and other fossil human species/lineages) form their teeth faster than modern people suggests that perhaps they 'lived faster' and died younger than us. It has also been used as evidence that Neandertals are a different species from modern humans.
But I don't know how well the latter taxonomic argument works. Along these lines, I wish the authors had discussed the meaning of the estimated crown formation times for their fossil 'modern' humans (Qafzeh 10 & 15 from Israel ~100 thousand years ago, and Irhoud 3 from Morocco ~160 thousand years ago). The boxplot summaries of crown extension rates (above) show that Neandertals are, indeed, generally fast relative to the large modern sample. However the fossil-modern humans (asterisks, which I've circled in red) show a bizarre, not easily interpretable pattern. For the central upper incisors (I1), fossil-moderns are either within the Neandertal range or an outlier at the high end of the human sample. For the lower second incisor (I2) the two fossil-moderns are either waaaaaay above the human range, or a little below it -either way it's outside the human range. In addition, the sole fossil-modern lower first molar has a lower rate than the modern sample - suggesting an even slower development time. Only the fossil-modern canine formation time fits comfortably within the range of modern humans. Given this wide range of variation in tooth crown formation times in the very small sample of fossil-modern humans, I don't think we can use this information to make taxonomic arguments.
I think these dental histology studies are very interesting, but I don't know how much stock we can put in any taxonomic interpretations of them. That Neandertal teeth form faster than modern humans' is old news, and the discussion focused solely on the neandertal-modern human comparison. It's too bad that the really interesting part of the paper - the variation in formation time displayed by the fossil-moderns - got no discussion.
Smith TM et al. 2010. Dental evidence for ontogenetic differences between modern humans and Neandertals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in press.